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Biological Insect Control Technique

Biological insect control technique helps reduce pest populations. Natural enemies of insect pests, known as biological log control agents include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include herbivores and plant pathogens.

Predators, such as birds, lady beetles and lacewings, are free-living species consuming large number of prey during their lifetime. Parasitoids are species within a single insect host that ultimately kills the host. Most have a very narrow host range, and wasps and some flies are parasitoids.

Pathogens are disease-causing organisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their own host and are relatively specific. There are three basic types of biological control strategies; conservation, classical biological control, and augmentation. Insects fall into two general categories – those that are beneficial and the ones that are harmful.

Biological control utilizes the natural presence of beneficial predators and parasites to reduce and keep the pest insect populations below economically harmful levels. Beneficial insects do not become pests themselves since they are programmed by nature to adjust their own population to fit those of the pests.

The population range of each Insect species is predetermined by nature. When one species increases its population, the insects which feed on that species will increase their population accordingly since there is that much more to eat. When the pest population is reduced to its normal range, the lower food supply will cause beneficial populations to adjust again through starvation or migration. The natural balance of nature is thus maintained.
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